Gynescomastia Surgery


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Male Breast Reduction Surgery in Jodhpur

Gynecomastia is derived from the Greek words gyne, meaning woman, and mastos, meaning breast. Gynecomastia is a synonym, and gynaecomazia is an obsolete term. While there have been many definitions of gynaecomastia, the one that is most applicable today is: A benign enlargement of the male breast (mamma masculina).

Gynaecomastia occurs physiologically in two-thirds of normal males at puberty and may persist into adolescence. This transient breast enlargement usually subsides spontaneously, but it may persist in adolescence or adulthood due to a real hypertrophy of breast tissue, fat excess, or a combination of both. Because of adolescent or idiopathic hyper-trophy, considerable psychological problems may arise.

Gynaecomastia is of two types: 1- True gynaecomastia is due to proliferation of ducts and periductal tissues. 2- Pseudogynaecomastia is due to deposition of adipose tissue or to the presence of an excessive amount of skin.

True gynaecomastia is due to some form of endocrine imbalance. This may be attributable to increased estrogen, decreased androgen, receptor defects, or an altered sensitivity of the breast to estrogen. The endocrine imbalance may be divided into 3 groups:


Physiologic Endocrine Imbalance

This condi-tion may become evident during various periods of a manÕs life: Neonatal, pubertal, or involu-tional. It is unlikely that neonatal gynaecomastia would be treated surgically. If pubertal gynae-comastia is transient, there are no surgical im-plications. The permanent form is well known. Involutional imbalance is a medical problem, and surgery is rarely indicated.


Endogenous Endocrine Imbalance

This condi-tion may result from congenital or acquired hormonal abnormalities as KlinefelterÕssyn-drome, male hypogonadism, testicular neoplasm, non-specific orchitis, mumps varicocoele, tes-ticular atrophy, adrenal cortex neoplasm, adrenal cortex hyperplasia, thyrotoxicosis, and pituitary tumour.


Exogenous Endocrine Imbalance

This situation may result from the administration of hormones, drugs whose molecular structure is similar to that of estrogen, or drugs with no known mech-anism of causal relationship. These agents may be taken accidentally or therapeutically.

However, in most cases of gynaecomastia, a cause cannot be identified, and the problem usually is idiopathic.

In pseudo gynaecomastia, the amount of breast tissue is normal, but there is an excess of fat present. This is often the result of excessive weight gain during childhood or puberty. Many of these men continue to maintain the excess fat in their breast even when the rest of the body has become slender.

The most common symptom of the patient with gynaecomastia is being self-conscious about the appearance of his enlarged breasts. The common complaints are embarrassment, concern about out-ward appearance (body image), and occasionally tenderness or even pain.

Several classifications are used for gynaecomastia to define the choice of surgical technique. Among these, Simons classification, based on breast size and degree of skin redundancy, is commonly used.

Successful medical management is directed at finding the underlying cause and treating the condition if possible. Treatment with various drugs has been tried, but serious side effects have limited the utility of drug therapy. The indication of surgery is the presence of a persistent mass that becomes embarrassing to the patient.

Most patients request treatment for psychological reasons. The goal in treating these patients is resection of the abnormal tissue that restores the normal male breast contour and minimizes scarring or residual f the breast and nipple-areola complex.

  • Grade 1 Is minor bur visible enlargement without skin redundancy
  • Grade 2A Is moderate breast enlargement without skin redundancy
  • Grade 2B Is moderate breast enlargement with minor skin redundancy
  • Grade 3 Is gross breast enlargement with skin redundancy that simulates a pendulous female breast

The medical term Gynecomastia means overdeveloped male breast like a female and the main reason is because of the physiological changes occurring during development phase in which male breast tissue is abnormally enlarged. Also there is abnormal fat deposit in the chest surrounding the nipple region giving puffy nipple appearance.

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